The mysterious darkish matter! The universe has 5 occasions extra darkish matter than regular matter. Darkish matter is simply as mysterious because the origin of the large bang.

No person is aware of precisely what darkish matter is. The overwhelming majority of hypotheses resort to largely unspecified and nonetheless undiscovered subatomic particles or suggest dramatic modifications to the recognized legal guidelines of physics.

In my papers revealed in 2020 in two peer-reviewed journals (*Analysis in Astronomy and Astrophysics* and *Atoms*), I supplied a way more pure rationalization of darkish matter, from which it follows that darkish matter is not only elsewhere within the universe, but in addition round us. Particularly, there’s a proof from atomic experiments that there are two sorts—or two flavors—of hydrogen atoms: the widespread ones and a second taste. The second taste of hydrogen atoms has virtually no interplay with electromagnetic radiation: They continue to be darkish.

There’s additionally different proof in favor of the existence of a second taste of hydrogen atoms from astrophysics. Its existence might clarify current puzzling astrophysical observations within the radiofrequency vary. Beneath are some particulars.

**One other thriller**

This astrophysical detective story began from my 2001 paper within the *Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics*. That paper handled one other longstanding thriller of the large discrepancy between the experimental and former theoretical outcomes in regards to the high-energy tail of the linear momentum distribution within the floor state of hydrogen atoms.

The prediction of earlier theories was for the tail to scale with the linear momentum p as ~1/p^{6}, whereas the experiments led to the scaling of ~1/p^{ok} with the worth of ok near 4. In that 2001 paper, I confirmed that the allowance for the second taste of hydrogen atoms eliminates this big discrepancy. Thus, there have been already each the theoretical and the experimental proofs of the existence of the second taste of hydrogen atoms.

By the way in which, the central level in that theoretical proof was an fascinating lead to its personal proper. The Dirac equation for the electron within the Coulomb discipline has not solely the common resolution, but in addition an answer that’s singular on the origin. For fashions the place the nucleus was thought-about as some extent cost, the singular resolution was justifiably rejected. In that paper, I demonstrated that with the allowance for the finite dimension of the proton, the singular resolution of the Dirac equation exterior the proton turns into reliable for states of zero angular momentum (in that paper I targeted on the floor state). It was the allowance for that singular resolution that eradicated the above big discrepancy between the atomic experiments and the speculation.

This was derived from the usual quantum mechanics. (There’s a joke: To know one thing means to derive it from quantum mechanics, which no one understands.) I didn’t change any bodily legal guidelines.

**Resolving puzzling observations from the early universe within the radiofrequency vary**

In 2020, in a paper revealed in *Analysis in Astronomy and Astrophysics*, I confirmed that for hydrogen atoms, the singular resolution of the Dirac equation exterior the proton is reliable not only for the bottom state, however for all excited discrete and steady states of zero angular momentum—that’s, for the so-called S-states.

Hydrogen atoms with solely S-states within the discrete and steady spectra represent the second taste of hydrogen atoms. Their states can’t be coupled by electric-dipole radiation as a result of it’s prohibited by the so-called choice guidelines. Subsequently, in that paper, I instructed that darkish matter or part of it may very well be represented by the second taste of hydrogen atoms.

In the identical paper, I confirmed that the existence of the second taste of hydrogen atoms might clarify a puzzling observational consequence published in 2018 in *Nature* by Bowman et al, coping with the 21-cm radioline (redshifted from the remaining frequency of 1,240 MHz to the frequency of 78 MHz) from the early universe. Because of the absorption of photons from the cosmic microwave background by hydrogen atoms, the authors noticed the absorption profile of this radioline. The ultraviolet gentle from stars fashioned within the early universe is anticipated to penetrate the primordial hydrogen fuel and to change the excitation of the hydrogen 21-cm line—the road equivalent to the transition between the hyperfine construction sublevels of the bottom state of hydrogen atoms.

Bowman et al discovered that the amplitude of the absorption profile of the 21-cm line was greater than an element of two better than the most important predictions. This might result in the conclusion that the primordial hydrogen fuel was a lot cooler than anticipated from the so-called normal cosmology.

Barkana, in his paper also published in *Nature* in 2018, thought-about an unspecified kind of darkish matter because the cooling agent. In my paper of 2020 in *Analysis in Astronomy and Astrophysics*, I analyzed what would occur if the cooling agent had been the second taste of hydrogen atom (fairly than an unspecified darkish matter). The bottom state of the second taste of hydrogen atoms has the identical superfine construction as the bottom state of the same old hydrogen atoms, in order that the second taste could be concerned within the absorption sign of the 21-cm redshifted line. (For that reason, rigorously talking, the second taste of hydrogen atoms may very well be known as “nearly dark matter.”)

In the middle of the universe enlargement, the second taste of hydrogen atoms decouple from the cosmic microwave background sooner than regular hydrogen atoms. It is because the excited discrete and steady states of the second taste of hydrogen atoms can’t be coupled by the electrical dipole radiation. Consequently, the subsystem of the second taste of hydrogen atoms is cooler than the subsystem of regular hydrogen atoms. In that paper, I confirmed that this state of affairs supplies each the qualitative and the quantitative rationalization of the puzzling observational consequence by Bowman et al. Thus, this constituted potential further proof of the existence of the second taste of hydrogen atoms, along with the proof of their existence from atomic experiments.

**Hydrogen atoms have flavors much like quarks**

In my paper of 2020 revealed in *Atoms*, I supplied a logical continuation of the above basic outcomes—the outcomes proving that the S-states of hydrogen atoms have an *further double-degeneracy*: Each the common floor state and the singular floor state correspond to the identical power with the identical quantum numbers. (Recall that in quantum mechanics, degeneracy means that there’s a couple of state equivalent to the identical power; in classical mechanics, degeneracy is manifested by closed orbits of a particle in a beautiful potential.)

In quantum mechanics, there’s a central theorem revealing the underlying purpose for any further degeneracy. Based on this theorem, the extra degeneracy is due the existence of an extra conserved amount (or portions) – along with the power (represented by the so-called Hamiltonian operator) and to the angular momentum (for spherically symmetric methods). For presenting the important thing a part of this theorem, I’ll overview the next:

In quantum mechanics, any bodily amount corresponds to an operator, which is a algorithm to remodel the so-called wave operate into one other wave operate. If the motion of the product of any two operators doesn’t rely on the order of those operators within the product, the 2 operators are stated to commute, which bodily implies that the 2 corresponding bodily portions may be measured concurrently. If the motion of the product of any two operators relies on the order of those operators within the product, the 2 operators are stated to not commute, which bodily implies that that the 2 corresponding bodily portions can’t be measured concurrently (as a result of they’re coupled by the uncertainty relation).

The important thing a part of the above theorem is that whereas the operator(s) of the extra conserved amount (or portions) commutes with the Hamiltonian, it doesn’t (or they don’t) commute with operators of different conserved portions; or, if it does (or they do), however the further conserved amount is a multi-component one, then its elements don’t commute with one another. The corresponding degenerate states of the system differ solely by the quantum variety of the extra conserved amount, however don’t differ by different quantum numbers equivalent to different conserved portions.

Based on my above-referenced papers, the S-states of hydrogen atoms have an extra double-degeneracy equivalent to the 2 flavors of those atoms. Consequently, there ought to be an extra new conserved amount having two potential values: one worth of this amount corresponds to the traditional hydrogen atoms, and one other worth to the second taste of hydrogen atoms.

The scenario is analogous to quarks. Certainly, it’s well-known that quarks have flavors: For instance, there are up and down quarks. For representing this case, there was launched an operator of the isotopic spin (isospin) I—the operator having two potential values for its z-projection: I_{z} = 1/2 equivalent to the up quark and I_{z} = –1/2 equivalent to the down quark.

Subsequently, in my paper of 2020 in *Atoms*, I launched a brand new operator: the operator of isohydrogen spin, abbreviated as isohyspin and denoted as I^{(h)}. Analogously to the isospin, the z-projection of the isohyspin operator has two eigenvalues: I^{(h)}_{z} = 1/2, equivalent to the same old taste of hydrogen atoms and I^{(h)}_{z} = –1/2, equivalent to the second taste of hydrogen atoms.

I emphasize that the thought of the isohyspin, whereas being the logical consequence of the elemental theorem of quantum mechanics, shouldn’t be obligatory for contemplating the second taste of hydrogen atoms because the candidate for darkish matter or for part of it.

**Detecting compact darkish objects within the universe**

There are recommendations within the literature that darkish matter, or part of it, could also be made up of so-called compact darkish matter objects (CDOs). Typically, parameters of CDOs (the mass and the gap) may very well be evaluated by utilizing the so-called gravitational microlensing impact. (This terminology refers back to the scenario the place a distant star is aligned with a CDO within the foreground, resulting in the bending of sunshine as a result of CDO’s gravitational discipline.) However this technique has limitations. First, it’s essential to take into accounts competing background results, and this considerably complicates the duty. Second, the alignment must be exact—subsequently, detections of CDOs on this method are few and they’re unpredictable.

In my paper of 2020 revealed in *New Astronomy*, I proposed an alternate technique for detecting and measuring parameters of CDOs. It’s applicable for the scenario the place there’s a star having one planet, such that the orbital aircraft of the planet doesn’t include the star. This implies that there’s a gravitating object situated distant on the axis directed from the star to the planetary orbital aircraft. If on this course there isn’t a seen star, it might signify that the distant gravitating object is a CDO.

The trajectory of the planet is a helix on the floor of a frustum of a cone. The axis of the cone coincides with the axis connecting the star and the CDO. On this conic-helical state, the planet, whereas spiraling on the floor of the cone, oscillates between two finish circles that consequence from chopping the cone by two parallel planes perpendicular to its axis. The gap between the 2 end-circles is way smaller than the typical radius of the planetary orbit, in order that the trajectory is perhaps paying homage to the form of a key ring.

This was proven in my papers revealed in 2015 within the *Astrophysical Journal* and in 2017 within the *Journal of Astrophysics & Aerospace Technology* (the latter paper being co-authored with N. Kryukov).

Primarily based on the outcomes of these earlier papers, within the 2020 paper revealed in *New Astronomy*, I derived analytical expressions for figuring out the unknown mass of the CDO and its unknown distance from the star by utilizing the parameters of the planetary orbit. The extra strategies obtainable for detecting CDOs and measuring their parameters, the higher the prospect of getting extra details about darkish matter within the universe.

**Concluding remarks**

Whereas there may be undoubtedly darkish matter within the universe—within the type of CDOs and/or in different varieties—essentially the most shocking results of my papers of 2020 is the next: It’s fairly potential that darkish matter or part of it’s represented not by some largely unspecified, undiscovered subatomic particles, however by hydrogen atoms: Specifically, by the second taste, whose existence has already been confirmed by the evaluation of atomic experiments and which might even have astrophysical proof (from the observations of the early universe within the radiofrequency vary). Subsequently, it’s fairly potential that on this type, darkish matter shouldn’t be solely someplace within the universe, but in addition round us.

Let me conclude with an applicable joke:

Why can’t you belief darkish matter?

As a result of it makes up virtually the whole lot.

**Writer’s Bio:**

Eugene Oks acquired his Ph.D. diploma from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Expertise, and later the best diploma of Physician of Sciences from the Institute of Basic Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the us by the choice of the Scientific Council led by the Nobel Prize winner, academician A.M. Prokhorov. Based on the Statute of the Physician of Sciences diploma, this highest diploma is awarded solely to essentially the most excellent Ph.D. scientists who based a brand new analysis discipline of a fantastic curiosity. Oks labored in Moscow (USSR) as the pinnacle of a analysis unit on the Heart for Finding out Surfaces and Vacuum, then – on the Ruhr College in Bochum (Germany) as an invited professor, and for the final 30 years – on the Physics Division of the Auburn College (USA) within the place of Professor. He carried out analysis in 5 areas: atomic and molecular physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, laser physics, and nonlinear dynamics. He based/co-founded and developed new analysis fields, reminiscent of intra-Stark spectroscopy (new class of nonlinear optical phenomena in plasmas), masing with out inversion (superior schemes for producing/amplifying coherent microwave radiation), and quantum chaos (nonlinear dynamics within the microscopic world). He additionally developed a lot of superior spectroscopic strategies for diagnosing varied laboratory and astrophysical plasmas – the strategies that had been then used and are utilized by many experimental teams world wide. He just lately revealed that there are two flavors of hydrogen atoms, as confirmed by the evaluation of atomic experiments; there may be additionally a potential astrophysical proof – from observations of the 21 cm radio line from the early Universe. He confirmed that darkish matter may be represented by the second taste of hydrogen atoms. He revealed about 500 papers and 8 books, together with the books “Plasma Spectroscopy: The Influence of Microwave and Laser Fields,” “Stark Broadening of Hydrogen and Hydrogenlike Spectral Lines in Plasmas: The Physical Insight,” “Breaking Paradigms in Atomic and Molecular Physics,” “Diagnostics of Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas Using Spectral Lineshapes of One-, Two, and Three-Electron Systems,” “Unexpected Similarities of the Universe with Atomic and Molecular Systems: What a Beautiful World,” “Analytical Advances in Quantum and Celestial Mechanics: Separating Rapid and Slow Subsystems,” and “Advances in X-Ray Spectroscopy of Laser Plasmas.” He’s the Chief Editor of the journal “International Review of Atomic and Molecular Physics.” He’s a member of the Editorial Boards of 5 different journals: “Symmetry,” “Dynamics,” “American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics,” “Open Journal of Microphysics” and “Open Physics.” He’s additionally a member of the Worldwide Program Committees of the 2 sequence of conferences: Spectral Line Shapes, in addition to Zvenigorod Convention on Plasma Physics and Managed Fusion.

**Extra data:** Eugene Oks, Different type of hydrogen atoms as a potential rationalization for the most recent puzzling commentary of the 21 cm radio line from the early Universe. *Analysis in Astronomy and Astrophysics*. www.raa-journal.org/raa/index. … aa/article/view/4550

Eugene Oks. Two Flavors of Hydrogen Atoms: A Potential Rationalization of Darkish Matter, *Atoms* (2020). DOI: 10.3390/atoms8030033

Eugene Oks. Different Approach to Detect and Measure Parameters of Compact Darkish Matter Object as a Part of a Binary System, *New Astronomy* (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.newast.2020.101521

Supply: ScienceX